Sounds (phonemes) to Alternative Spellings (letters/graphemes)

Consonants (24)

PhonemeIPA SymbolGraphemesAs-In Key Words
/b/bb, bbbug, bubble
/d/dd, dd, eddad, add, milled
/f/ff, ff, ph, gh, lf, ftfat, cliff, phone, enough, half, often
/g/gg, gg, gh, gu, guegun, egg, ghost, guest, prologue
/h/hh, whhop, who
/j/j, ge, g, dge, di, ggjam, wage, giraffe, edge, soldier, exaggerate
/k/kk, c, ch, cc, lk, qu, q(u), ck, xkit, cat, chris, accent, folk, bouquet, queen, rack, box
/l/ll, lllive, well
/m/mm, mm, mb, mn, lmman, summer, comb, column, palm
/n/nn, nn, kn, gn, pn, mnnet, funny, know, gnat, pneumonic, mnemonic
/p/pp, pppin, dippy
/r/rr, rr, wr, rhrun, carrot, wrench, rhyme
/d/ss, ss, c, sc, ps, st, ce, sesit, less, circle, scene, psycho, listen, pace, course
/t/tt, tt, th, edtip, matter, thomas, ripped
/v/vv, f, ph, vevine, of, stephen, five
/w/ww, wh, u, owit, why, quick, choir
/y/jy, i, jyou, onion, hallelujah
/z/zz, zz, s, ss, x, ze, sezed, buzz, his, scissors, xylophone, craze
/ch/ch, tch, tu, techip, watch, future, righteous
/sh/ʃsh, ce, s, ci, si, ch, sci, tisham, ocean, sure, special, pension, machine, conscience, station
/th/θth thongs
/ng/ŋng, n, nguering, pink, tongue
/zh/ʒs, si, ztreasure, division, azure

Vowels (20)

PhonemeIPA SymbolGraphemesAs-In Key Words
/a/æa, ai, aucat, plaid, laugh
/ai/a, ai, eigh, aigh, ay, er, et, ei, au, a_e, ea, eybay, maid, weigh, straight, pay, foyer, filet, eight, gauge, mate, break, they
/ä/ɑ:aarm, father
/e/ɛe, ea, u, ie, ai, a, eo, ei, aeend, bread, bury, friend, said, many, leopard, heifer, aesthetic
/ē/ i:e, ee, ea, y, ey, oe, ie, i, ei, eo, aybe, bee, meat, lady, key, phoenix, grief, ski, deceive, people, quay
/i/ɪi, e, o, u, ui, y, ieit, england, women, busy, guild, gym, sieve
/ī/i, y, igh, ie, uy, ye, ai, is, eigh, i_espider, sky, night, pie, guy, stye, aisle, island, height, kite
/aw/ɒa, ho, au, aw, oughswan, honest, maul, slaw, fought
/ō/o, oa, o_e, oe, ow, ough, eau, oo, ewopen, moat, bone, toe, sow, dough, beau, brooch, sew
/ü/ʊo, oo, u,ouwolf, look, bush, would
/ŭ/ʌu, o, oo, oulug, monkey, blood, double
/ö/u:o, oo, ew, ue, u_e, oe, ough, ui, oew, ouwho, loon, dew, blue, flute, shoe, through, fruit, manoeuvre, group
/oi/ɔɪoi, oy, uoyjoin, boy, buoy
/ow/ow, ou, oughnow, shout, bough
/ə/əa, er, i, ar, our, urabout, ladder, pencil, dollar, honour, augur
/ã/eəʳair, are, ear, ere, eir, ayerchair, dare, pear, where, their, prayer
/û/ɜ:ʳir, er, ur, ear, or, our, yrbird, term, burn, pearl, word, journey, myrtle
/ô/ɔ:aw, a, or, oor, ore, oar, our, augh, ar, ough, aupaw, ball, fork, poor, fore, board, four, taught, war, bought, sauce
/ēə/ɪəʳear, eer, ere, ierear, steer, here, tier
/ür/ʊəʳure, ourcure, tourist


Dyslexia Reading Well, 44 Phonemes in English
Reading Rockets, The 44 Phonemes (Sounds) of English
Diane McGuinness, Why Our Children Can't Read, And What You Can Do About It (1997), pp.236-246, pp.256-259, Simon & Schuster.
Denise Eide, Understanding the Logic of English (2011), pp.29-35, Logic of English.
Malia Hollowell, The Science of Reading in Action (2023), pp.86-92, Teachers Goals.